Abstract Hijras are a traditional transgender community in India. After a sacrificial emasculation, they become vehicles of the powers of the goddess Mata Bahuchara and can exercise their ritual role, called badhai. However, in the current modern context, they are largely marginalized in Indian society. The police violence against hijras finds its impunity in… Continue reading Dissertation: Hijras and Postcolonial Modernity: a critical exploration
Several themes run through feminist literature, including the relationship between a woman’s body and her identity, or between being both a mother and a social self. However the subject of the mother-daughter relationship is largely absent in the general literature. In an early book on the topic, Adrienne Rich wrote, ‘we acknowledge Lear (father-daughter split),… Continue reading Critically contrast Beauvoir’s and Irigaray’s visions of female authenticity and motherhood.
Transitional justice is a component of peacebuilding that seeks for accountability, justice and reconciliation. It is based on four core measures: perpetrators’ trial, truth-revealing, reparations for victims and administrative reforms (Van Zyl, 2005, p.209). If these measures have existed for a long time, their justification by reference to universal human rights and democratic goals is… Continue reading In a conflict with which you are familiar, what role did transitional justice play as a tool of peace-building?
The notion of ‘second generation’ used in France since the 1980s designates the generation of immigrants’ offspring, especially Maghreb immigrants coming as a response to the expanding European economies’ labor demand (Hamilton, 1997, p.550). Moreover, this concept influences transnational migration studies because it is a specific categorization of the social sphere, particularly linked to young… Continue reading Case study: To what extent does the concept of ‘second generation’, characterising the Maghreb immigrants’ children in France, engender a form of social division?
‘The Clash of Civilizations?’ by Samuel Huntington was published in the journal Foreign Affairs in 1993, and is a reaction to Fukuyama’s article ‘The End of History?’ published in 1989 which argues that ‘history in terms of humanity’s search for the optimum form of society’ (Adams, 2001, p.281) ends with the consensus on free-market liberal… Continue reading Was Huntington accurate to claim, in 1993, that conflict after the Cold War would largely occur between ‘civilizations’?
Terrorism was not explored by philosophy and social sciences until the attacks in September 2001 on the United States, the focus was then rather given to violence and rebellion. Writers from different times can develop and contribute to our understanding and analyses of nowadays’ terrorism. For example, French writers and philosophers Albert Camus and Jacques… Continue reading Critically consider how Camus and Derrida may contribute to an understanding of terrorism in modernity.
Feminism, as well as critical theory, post-structuralism or post-colonialism, is considered in International Relations as an approach rather than a theory. However, all these give different understandings by uncovering power relations and questioning what foundational theories view as certainties in the world (Georgis and Lugosi, 2014, pp.77-78). In order to understand to what extent the… Continue reading Is feminism as an IR theory ethnocentric? Discuss.