Introduction In many ways the rhetoric in the Western world surrounding the outbreak of the Arab Spring paints it as an event which happened suddenly, with little build up that could have predicted the shocking events. But in reality, when looking at the countries which have experienced upheaval since 2011, there were many material… Continue reading Was the outbreak of Arab Spring in Tunisia driven more by ideas or material factors?
Introduction In a democracy, the influence of the privileged classes is theoretically counterbalanced by the involvement of civil society leaders in political decision-making. The public sphere becomes an intermediary between governmental structures and society. However, in the classic Habermassian definition of the public sphere, normative criteria cannot take into account the public spheres which develop… Continue reading Under what circumstances can civil society initiatives usefully contribute to dialogue and peace negotiations, or do such efforts misunderstand the structural dynamics of violent conflict?
Introduction: Gender, citizenship and militancy in Palestine The gender issue has long been disregarded by classical analyses of citizenship that were transforming social actors into undifferentiated, abstract and homogeneous individuals. Critical citizenship studies imply taking into account the power relations between the different components of each society, as well as representations of citizens, as defined… Continue reading How has female militancy in Palestine addressed the relationship between nationalist discourse, gender representations and the construction of Palestinian identity and citizenship?
In 2011 the peoples of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) demonstrated against their governments’ abuses and transformed the region’s policy. The leaders strongly opposed the reforms demanded by protesters and used their police and army to crush the rebellions with force. Despite leaders’ attempts to end uprisings and retain power, rebels managed to… Continue reading Why was France so assertive in taking leadership to bring change to Libya in 2011?
Transitional justice is a component of peacebuilding that seeks for accountability, justice and reconciliation. It is based on four core measures: perpetrators’ trial, truth-revealing, reparations for victims and administrative reforms (Van Zyl, 2005, p.209). If these measures have existed for a long time, their justification by reference to universal human rights and democratic goals is… Continue reading In a conflict with which you are familiar, what role did transitional justice play as a tool of peace-building?
The notion of ‘second generation’ used in France since the 1980s designates the generation of immigrants’ offspring, especially Maghreb immigrants coming as a response to the expanding European economies’ labor demand (Hamilton, 1997, p.550). Moreover, this concept influences transnational migration studies because it is a specific categorization of the social sphere, particularly linked to young… Continue reading Case study: To what extent does the concept of ‘second generation’, characterising the Maghreb immigrants’ children in France, engender a form of social division?